MerlinEM

 

The MerlinEM Direct Electron Detector (DED) is an advanced detector development in the field of Electron Microscopy, combining direct detection of electrons and rapid readout in a pixelated format ideal for applications such as 4D STEM and TEM dynamic imaging. Each sensor pixel is individually bump-bonded to an intelligent chip which uses threshold discriminators to distinguish electrons from the background, effectively eliminating all readout noise. This allows for integral mode imaging where multiple short exposure images are acquired and summed together. Uniquely, neighbouring pixels can communicate to mitigate charge-sharing effects, and this, combined with the direct detection of electrons, yields enhanced performance. As beam energies decrease toward 60 keV, the Merlin for EM has been shown to provide near-ideal DQE and MTF detector response.

Request more informationMerlinEM Datasheet

MerlinEM Installation Sites

TitleAddress Description
University of Glasgow
Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK

Detector Installed – Visit the group website

University of Oxford
Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Fermi Ave, Didcot OX11 0DE, UK

Detector Installed – Visit the group website

NIST
100 Bureau Dr, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA

Detector Installed – Visit the group website

University of Victoria
Victoria, BC V8P 5C2, Canada

Detector Installed – Visit the group website

EMAT University of Antwerp
Prinsstraat 13, 2000 Antwerpen, Belgium

Detector Installed – Visit the group website

MPI Stuttgart
Heisenbergstraße 3, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany

Detector Installed – Visit the group website

Ernst Ruska Centre
52428 Jülich, Germany

Detector Installed – Visit the group website

Brookhaven National Laboratory
98 Rochester St, Upton, NY 11973, USA

Detector Installed – Visit the group website

RIKEN
Japan, 〒351-0105 Saitama, Wako, Nishiyamatodanchi, 2−1 2-1

Detector Installed – Visit the group website

The Univeristy of Queensland
St Lucia QLD 4072, Australia

Detector Installed – Visit the group website

 

TU Darmstadt
Karolinenpl. 5, 64289 Darmstadt, Germany

Detector Installed – Visit the group website

University Paris Sud
15 Rue Georges Clemenceau, 91400 Orsay, France

Detector Installed – Visit the group website

National University of Singapore
21 Lower Kent Ridge Rd, Singapore 119077

Detector Installed – Visit the group website

Fraunhofer Institute for Microstructure of Materials and Systems IMWS
Walter-Hülse-Straße 1, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany

Detector Installed – Visit the group website

Wuhan University
Wuchang District, Wuhan, Hubei, China, 430072

Detector Install upcoming – Visit the group website

TU Berlin
Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin, Germany

Detector Installed – Visit the group website

Shanghai Tech University
393 Huaxia Middle Rd, Pudong Xinqu, China, 201210

Detector Install upcoming – Visit the group website

Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)
Høgskoleringen 1, 7491 Trondheim, Norway

Detector Installed – Visit the group website

The University of Cambridge
The Old Schools, Trinity Ln, Cambridge CB2 1TN, UK

Detector Install upcoming – Visit the group website

University of Texas in Austin
Austin, TX 78712, USA

Detector Install upcoming – Visit the group website

University of Manchester
Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, UK

Detector Installed – Visit the group website

CNRS - Institut Néel
25 Avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble, France

Detector Installed – Visit the group website

University of York
Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK

Detector Install upcoming – Visit the group website

University Paris Sud- Orsay
15 Rue Georges Clemenceau, 91400 Orsay, France

Detector Install upcoming – Visit the group website

MPI Stuttgart
Heisenbergstraße 1, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany

Detector Install Upcoming – Visit the group website

Shenzhen Read Crystal Technology
447 Huangge Rd, Long Gang Zhong Xin Cheng, Longgang Qu, Shenzhen Shi, Guangdong Sheng, China

Detector Install Upcoming – Visit the group website

Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science
Akademie der Wissenschaften, Jahnstraße 12, 8700 Leoben, Austria

Detector Install Upcoming – Visit the group website

EPFL
Route Cantonale, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland

Detector Install Upcoming – Visit the group website

Lille University
42 Rue Paul Duez, 59000 Lille, France

Detector Install Upcoming – Visit the group website

Xi'An Jiaotong University
28 Xianning W Rd, Jiao Da Shang Ye Jie Qu, Beilin Qu, Xian Shi, Shaanxi Sheng, China, 710050

Detector Install Upcoming – Visit the group website

Guangdong Jihua Lab
Guicheng Subdistrict, Foshan, Nanhai District, Foshan, Guangdong Province, China

Detector Install Upcoming – Visit the group website

Inst of Metal Research, CAS (IMRCAS)
72-19 Wenhua Rd, Shenhe Qu, Shenyang Shi, Liaoning Sheng, China, 110005

Detector Install Upcoming – Visit the group website

Applications

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4D STEM

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Diffraction imaging

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Low Dose Imaging

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Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

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Ptychography

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TEM imaging

Our MerlinEELS Application Note shows how users have applied High kV core-loss imaging to their EELS application where electron counting and zero-read out noise are crucial. Additionally the high dynamic range of the detector is demonstrated in zero-loss peak area.

The MerlinEM 4D STEM Application Note outlines MerlinEM’s use in imaging of electro-magnetic fields in nano beam diffraction and in atomically resolved imaging.

In this note, we will show examples of using a MerlinEM detector to generate established signals in STEM. We will use LiberTEM2software to reconstruct the data and specifically its GUI web interface. We will show examples of virtual STEM images and convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) from a few different samples

Our MerlinEM Ptychography Application Note explores the reconstruction of samples complex phase with two different modes of ptychography in 4D-STEM

Specifications

Rapid Gapless Readout and high dynamic range

Kilohertz frame rates in continuous mode with zero deadtime offers more experimental flexibility than ever before, minimising effects such as sample drift, and enabling single shot and “pump and probe” dynamic experiments. Up to 24-bit counting depth enabling 1:16.7 million intensity range in a single image, ideal for recording diffraction patterns.

Region of Interest

MerlinEM offers an exciting opportunity to image a subset of the Medipix3 chip and achieve faster frame speeds. The ROI Rows allows the user to select how many Rows the software will read from the detector. The following schematic demonstrates the possible speed advantages when using ROI. This mode can be used to significantly speed up the STEM acquisition.

Effectively noise free

Two threshold discriminators in each pixel means zero read noise and dark current.  (a) Pixel event schematic. (b) Principle of electron counting, signal is only collected when deposited in the pixel is above threshold. (c) Schematic of the pixel logic.

Adapted from Paterson GW et al, Ultramicroscopy, 2020, Vol 210 under CC 4.0 licence

 

Charge Summing Mode (CSM)

“Charge Summing Mode” (CSM) is a useful mode which can be applied to the lower energies of the TEM range (60-120 kV, potentially even higher). It was designed to allow for a better detection of particles striking close to the pixels’ edge and to alter charge spreading. For example, if the threshold is set to 70% of the beam energy, an electron striking the edge of the pixel may not be counted in a standard, single pixel mode. It will not deposit enough energy to trigger the count in any pixel. If CSM mode is active, the detector electronics will compare the charge in the neighbouring pixels and assign it to the pixel with the largest deposited charge. The sum of the deposited energies will be compared against the threshold. This maximises the DQE response of the detector.

Software

MerlinEM MIB data is in an open format. The various acquisition modes, as well as many other input parameters for the optimisation of the MERLIN system, are easily chosen by a user friendly Graphical Interface as well as remotely controlled via TCP/IP protocol, and Digital Micrograph. The
MerlinEM software now includes an exciting opportunity to visualise 4D-STEM datasets in real time. Annular, bright field and DPC virtual detection is available in our new STEM interface.

Olivia Sleator

Olivia Sleator

Sales Manager

Publications

Recently published articles including MerlinEM data:

 

  • Detectors—The ongoing revolution in scanning transmission electron microscopy and why this important to material characterization

APL Materials 8, 110901 (2020); Ian MacLaren, Thomas A. Macgregor, Christopher S. Allen, and Angus I.Kirkland 
https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0026992https://aip.scitation.org/doi/full/10.1063/5.0026992

  • Spontaneous creation and annihilation dynamics and strain-limited stability of magnetic skyrmions

Nature Communications volume 11, Article number: 3536 (2020) Frederic Rendell-Bhatti, Raymond J. Lamb, Johannes W. van Der Jagt, Gary W. Paterson, Henk J. M. Swagten & Damien McGrouther
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-17338-7

  • Local Crystallinity in Twisted Cellulose Nanofibers

ACS Nano (2021) Tom Willhammar*, Kazuho Daicho, Duncan N. Johnstone, Kayoko Kobayashi, Yingxin Liu, Paul A. Midgley, Lennart Bergstrom, and Tsuguyuki Saito
https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsnano.0c08295

  • Performance-limiting nanoscale trap clusters at grain junctions in halide perovskites.

Nature 580, 360–366 (2020). Doherty, T.A.S., Winchester, A.J., Macpherson, S. et al.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2184-1

  • Direct Imaging of Correlated Defect Nanodomains in a Metal–Organic Framework.

Collins:  Journal of the American Chemical Society 2020 142 (30), 13081-13089 Duncan N. Johnstone, Francesca C. N. Firth, Clare P. Grey, Paul A. Midgley, Matthew J. Cliffe, and Sean M.
DOI: 10.1021/jacs.0c04468

  • High-speed direct detectors such as MerlinEM are discussed in the forthcoming Handbook on Big Data and Machine Learning in the Physical Sciences

Volume 2: Advanced Analysis Solutions for Leading Experimental Techniques, Chapter 5: Next-Generation Information Technology Systems for Fast Detectors in Electron Microscopy. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Dieter Weber , Alexander Clausen and Rafal E. Dunin-Borkowski
https://doi.org/10.1142/9789811204579_0005

Xspress 3 Application Notes

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Ptychography Application Notes

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4D STEM Application Notes

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virtualSTEM Application Notes

To gain access to the virtualSTEM Application Notes please fill in your email address here

Thanks. You'll hear from us. Click here for the pdf


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